Works of Scholarship

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    The Army NFL Combine: The Battalion Commander Assessment Program
    (Modern War Institute, 2020) Spain, Everett
    What is the best way to select the US Army’s future battalion commanders? The Army Talent Management Task Force (ATMTF) has spent the past two years actively studying this critical question. In the fall of 2019, Army senior leaders directed that the highest rated officers from the recently concluded fiscal year (FY) 2021 lieutenant colonel command/key billet selection board participate in the Battalion Commander Assessment Program (BCAP), scheduled for several four-day periods across January–February 2020. The BCAP will refine the results of the traditional battalion command board by further assessing each officer’s readiness for command and strategic potential to better determine who will be the primary selectees for command, who will be the alternates, and who should not command at all.
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    The Character Edge: Leading and Winning with Integrity
    (St. Martin's Press, 2021) Caslen, Robert L.; Matthews, Michael D.
    The former superintendent at West Point and a psychologist explain why all successful leaders rely on a foundation of strong character. Among the most successful leaders throughout history—from Abe Lincoln to Rosa Parks, Mahatma Gandhi to Susan B. Anthony, Martin Luther King, Jr. to Nelson Mandela—some were brilliant mathematicians and economists, others were creative visionaries, still others were masterful at strategic planning. Their mastery of their field wasn’t the secret to their highly effective leadership. All of their skill, grit, resilience, charisma, and courage emanated from one thing: their strength of character. Character—the moral values and habits of an individual—is in the spotlight now more than perhaps at any other point in modern history. Politicians distort facts. Corporations cheat customers and investors. Athletes are caught using illegal supplements. In addition to harming our culture at large, these failures of character have a profound and undermining impact on leadership. The authors of this book are experts on the value of character, its correlation with successful leadership, and how to build it in individuals and prospective leaders. General Robert L. Caslen, Jr. served the US Army for over 43 years and served as Superintendent at the US Military Academy at West Point. Psychologist Dr. Michael D. Matthews is a Professor of Engineering Psychology at West Point who has focused on the psychology of character for years. Together they witnessed firsthand that raw talent is not enough to stand on its own; successful leadership relies on the critical foundation of a strong character. In The Character Edge they leverage their perspectives to offer an empowering, story-driven argument—backed by the latest scientific research—that character is vital to success. They give listeners the tools to build and sustain character in themselves and their organizations by testing listeners' strengths of the gut, head and heart and teaching how to build trust and nurture the seeds of character.
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    Reinventing the Leader Selection Process: The U.S. Army’s new approach to managing talent
    (Harvard Business Review, 2020) Spain, Everett
    The U.S. Army has long struggled with toxic and inept leaders, and no wonder: It has historically chosen battalion commanders, a linchpin position, on the basis of 90-second file reviews. Last year it undertook an ambitious revamping of that selection process, which now involves four full days of physical, cognitive, and psychological assessments and interviews. The author, a lieutenant colonel who served as an adviser to the task force that designed and implemented the new process, describes it in granular detail, including a variety of rigorous measures for reducing interviewer bias and ensuring diversity and inclusion. Although specifically aimed at improving the validity, reliability, and developmental impact of the army’s executive-leader selections, the redesigned process offers important lessons for any organization seeking to bolster its talent assessment and promotion practices.
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    Physiological Versus Self-Report Measures of Arousal During Tactical Training Involving a Synthetic Topographic Environment
    (Simulation Innovation Workshop (SIW), 2020) Boyce, Michael; Stainrod, Cortnee; Pyke, Aryn
    This research compared the electrodermal activity (EDA) of 43 West Point Cadets while they completed a tactical task using 2 different displays (HoloLens vs. Tablet, within-subjects). It further compared EDA results to self-reported affect/arousal results from the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; Bradley & Lang, 1994). First we sought to understand how EDA varied between the two different types of presentation formats (Hololens vs. Tablet). Second it was expected that the EDA data would negatively correlate to self-report data based on previous research (Boyce, Reyes, et al., 2016), and third the EDA and self-report measures were expected be able to predict performance. Results did not indicate significant differences based on display type, however the results did support the negative correlation between EDA and SAM. Finally there was a trend toward predicting performance but it did not reach statistically significant levels, warranting the need for further investigation.
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    An Experiential Exercise for Teaching Theories of Work Motivation: Using a Game to Teach Equity and Expectancy Theories
    (Emerald Publishing, 2020) Swain, Jordan; Kumlien, Kevin; Bond, Andrew
    Purpose This paper aims to provide an experiential exercise for management and leadership educators to use in the course of their teaching duties. Design/methodology/approach The approach of this classroom teaching method uses an experiential exercise to teach Adams’ equity theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory. Findings This experiential exercise has proven useful in teaching two major theories of motivation and is often cited as one of the more memorable classes students experience. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is an original experiential exercise for teaching the equity and expectancy theories of motivation.
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    Tactical Economics” Help the U.S. Army “Win in a Complex World?” Addressing Army Warfighting Challenges with an Evidence-Based Approach
    (Harvard Kennedy School of Government, 2016) Bate, Jonathan
    As the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review highlights, the U.S. military faces a world that is more volatile and complex than ever before. The Department of Defense’s primary ground force, the U.S. Army, bears primary responsibility for leading population-centric stability operations, which involve establishing security, providing humanitarian relief, restoring essential services, and rebuilding critical infrastructure. This paper examines the Army’s recent experiences with stability operations and considers whether economic programs at the “micro” level can provide an important capability to tactical units--“tactical economics.” Employing economic interventions effectively is extremely difficult, as operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have demonstrated. To prepare for future stability operations, the U.S. Army can benefit from an assessment of its current capabilities. Analysis indicates that adoption of an “evidence-based” approach to tactical economics, guided by insights provided by empirical social science, can provide a powerful nonlethal option by which tactical commanders can shape the security environment.
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    Entrepreneurial Leadership: Shark tank for warriors
    (Routledge, 2021) Young, Lissa V.
    Welcome to your introduction to the field of entrepreneurship. A fundamental component of quality leadership and management is the ability to identify capability gaps, address market change or demand, and innovate organizational structure, policy, and procedure. Entrepreneurship is a mindset and a skill set that applies these abilities and processes. This course focuses specifically on developing in each student the abilities and process management skills of effective entrepreneurs. That is, each student will learn to adopt an innovator’s mind and skill set. The course is designed to teach leaders a disciplined methodology for creating value through innovation in organizations.
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    Adapting a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes
    (Memory & Cognition, 2002-04) Foley, Mary Ann ; Foley, Hugh J. ; Korenman, Lisa M.
    The present experiments adapt a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes. Closure processes are invoked as explanatory mechanisms underlying the ability to identify objects under conditions of incomplete visual information. If closure processes are activated, filling in missing pieces of visual information, intriguing memory predictions follow. When making source judgments about the way in which visual information was experienced initially (e.g., complete or incomplete in form), a particular kind of memory error should be evident. Incomplete visual information should be remembered as complete in form, and indeed, this error is observed. The present experiments test alternative interpretations for the initial reports of this memory error in the context of a search task modeled after the Where's Waldo? children's books. The effects of several new factors (e.g., familiarity) are reported, and alternative interpretations for the bias to report complete are eliminated. Findings, therefore, have implications for understanding the mechanisms of closure processes, as well as for the source-monitoring framework itself.
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    Cognitive deficits in children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma
    (Neurology, 2001-07-10) Frattali, C. M. ; Liow, K. ; Craig, G. H. ; Korenman, Lisa M. ; Makhlouf, F. ; Sato, S. ; Biesecker, L.G. ; Theodore, W. H.
    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cognitive deficits in children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma and investigate the relationship of seizure severity to cognitive abilities. METHODS: Eight children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma completed a neuropsychological battery of standardized and age-normed tests, including the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised: Tests of Cognitive Ability, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III, and initial-letter word fluency measure. RESULTS: All children displayed cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe. Gelastic/complex partial seizure severity was correlated with broad cognitive ability standard scores (r = -0.79; r2 = 0.63; (F[1,6] = 10.28; p = 0.018]. Frequency of gelastic/complex partial seizures was also correlated with broad cognitive ability standard scores (r = -0.72; r2 = 0.52; F[1,6] = 6.44; p = 0.044). Significant intracognitive standard score differences were found, with relative weaknesses in long-term retrieval (mean = 64.1; SD = 13.3) and processing speed (mean = 67.7; SD = 21.6) and a relative strength in visual processing (mean = 97.6; SD = 12.8). Performance in visual processing differed from performance in long-term retrieval (p = 0.009) and processing speed (p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with cognitive functions and affective/emotional states associated with conduction pathways of the hypothalamus involving cortical association areas and amygdala and hippocampal formation. These abnormalities can account for the prominent deficit found in integrating information in the processing of memories.
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    Neuropsychological Deficits of a U.S. Army Pilot following an Anoxic Event as a Function of Cardiac Arrest
    (Military Medicine, 2003-09-01) Baggett, Mark R. ; Kelly, Mark P. ; Korenman, Lisa M. ; Ryan, Laurie M.
    Anoxic encephalopathy occurs as a result of cardiac arrest, respiratory distress, or carbon monoxide poisoning. This is a case report on the neuropsychological deficits of anoxia in an otherwise previously healthy 36-year-old male pilot. The patient was taking an over-the-counter supplement that included an herb called Ma Huang on the day of his cardiac arrest. Ma Huang is reported to potentially present an increased risk of cardiac infarctions and central nervous system dysfunctions. Several instances of death have been linked to Ma Huang. The patient produced a neuropsychological profile that evidenced impairments in executive functioning, memory, language, attention, intellectual and academic functioning, as well as motor speed and coordination, all of which are consistent with diffuse brain damage. This case adds to the body of literature documenting the physical and neuropsychological effects of anoxia, as well as the effects of ephedrine-based supplements, such as Ma Huang.
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    Communication of Visual and Auditory Information and The Coordination of Team Task Performance
    (Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2019-11-20) Werner, Adam F. ; Gorman, Jamie C. ; Crites, Michael J.
    Due to lack of visual or auditory perceptual information, many tasks require interpersonal coordination and teaming. Dyadic verbal and/or auditory communication typically results in the two people becoming informationally coupled. This experiment examined coupling by using a two-person remote navigation task where one participant blindly drove a remote-controlled car while another participant provided auditory, visual, or a combination of both cues (bimodal). Under these conditions, we evaluated performance using easy, moderate, and hard task difficulties. We predicted that the visual condition would have higher performance measures overall, and the bimodal condition would have higher performance as difficulty increased. Results indicated that visual coupling performs better overall compared to auditory coupling and that bimodal coupling showed increased performance as task difficulty went from moderate to hard. When auditory coupling occurs, the frequency at which teams communicate affects performance— the faster teams spoke, the better they performed, even with visual communication available.
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    Columbia in the Nation’s Service: Warner Burke and the Education of U.S. Army Leaders
    (The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 2020-09-10) Spain, Everett ; Reed, Brian J.
    In 1969, Columbia University banned Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) from campus. In 2004, Teachers College’s Warner Burke, a senior professor of psychology and Army officer veteran, saw an opportunity to close this civil–military gap. Burke partnered with West Point to educate West Point cadets’ primary leader developers, its 36 company tactical officers, through hosting them annually in a world-class Master of Social-Organizational Psychology. In 2010, Burke welcomed the Army Fellows program to campus, bringing in one or two senior Army officers a year to study under his mentorship. Since Burke courageously showed the way, Columbia has welcomed ROTC back to campus and now boasts the largest numbers of veteran students in the Ivy League. Most recently, Burke built a third program, this one to educate critical Army leaders who historically did not have access to elite higher education, its noncommissioned officer corps.
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    Early predictors of successful military careers among West Point cadets
    (Military Psychology, 2020-11-16) Spain, Everett S. ; Lin, Eric ; Young, Lissa V.
    The importance of leadership to organizational performance puts a premium on identifying future leaders. Early prediction of high-potential talent enables organizations to marshal scarce developmental resources and opportunities to those who are best positioned to show distinction in elevated roles. Much of the existing literature indicates that general mental ability remains the strongest predictor of future professional performance. Using data from 13 classes of West Point graduates who stayed in the Army to be considered for at least early promotion to the rank of major (N = 5,505), regression analyses indicate that cadet military grade point average surpasses both cognitive ability and academic performance by a considerable margin in the ability to predict future professional outcomes such as selection for early promotion or battalion command. Moreover, these differences in predicting managerial career outcomes endure over 16 years. Both practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
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    Determinants of Gender Differences in Change in Pay among Job-Switching Executives
    (ILR Review, 2020-06-14) Groysberg, Boris ; Healy, Paul ; Lin, Eric
    The authors investigate what determines differences in change in pay between men and women executives who move to new employers. Using proprietary data of 2,034 executive placements from a global search firm, the authors observe narrower pay differences between men and women after job moves. The unconditional gap shrinks from 21.5% in the prior employer to 15% in the new employer. After controlling for typical explanatory factors, the residual gap falls by almost 30%, from 8.5% at the prior employer to 6.1% in the new placement. This change reflects a relative increase in performance-based compensation for women and a lower level of unexplained pay inequality generally in external placements. Controlling for individual fixed effects, observed women have higher pay raises than do men. Finally, the authors find suggestive evidence that pay differences may also be moderated by differences in the supply and demand for women executives.
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    A Model of Technology Incidental Learning Effects
    (Educational Psychology Review, 2020-10-10) Greene, Jeffrey A. ; Copeland, Dana Z. ; Deekens, Victor M.
    Increases in technology use, among youth and adults, are concerning given the volume of information produced and disseminated in the modern world. Conceptual models have been developed to understand how people manage the large volume of information encountered during intentional learning activities with technology. What, if anything, do people learn when they happen upon news and other information while using technology for purposes other than learning? Questions like this highlight the need to understand incidental learning, i.e., learning that occurs when people, who are pursuing a goal other than learning such as entertainment, encounter information that leads to a change in thinking or behavior. In this article, we integrate theory and research from multiple scholarly literatures into the Technology Incidental Learning Effects (TILE) model, which provides a framework for future research on how incidental learning occurs and what factors affect this process. Current research on incidental learning can be informed by educational psychology scholarship on dual-processing, motivation, interest, source evaluation, and knowledge reconstruction. The TILE model points to many promising future directions for research with direct implications for modern society, including the need to better understand how and why people move from merely noticing to engaging with incidentally exposed information as well as how to help people successfully manage the large amounts of information they encounter when using technology for purposes other than learning.
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    Character strengths and performance outcomes among military brat and non-brat cadets
    (Military Psychology, 2020-02-13) Gosnell, Courtney L. ; Kelly, Dennis R. ; Ender, Morten G. ; Matthews, Michael D.
    Although many studies have compared military vs. civilian samples on a wide variety of characteristics, few have examined these differences within the context of those who commit a portion of their life to the military. In this study, we explored how West Point cadets with (“military brat cadet”) or without (“non-brat cadet”) a family military background might differ in terms of their character strengths. Although the cadets shared many similarities, we found that several strengths related to self-control were higher in non-brat cadets than brat cadets and that many of these self-control-related strengths were important predictors of performance for brat cadets (but not non-brat cadets). For non-brat cadets, strengths related to a drive to fully involve themselves and navigate relationships with others were better predictors of performance. In a second study utilizing a different class of cadets, we again found support for the idea that nonmilitary brat cadets possessed more self-control than military brat cadets. Better understanding the unique strengths and weaknesses of those within the military who have vs. don’t have a military background may provide important insights for future recruitment, training, and military preparation.
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    Popular Culture and the Military
    (Handbook of Military Sciences, 2020-05-17) Ender, Morten G. ; Reed, Brian J. ; Absalon, Jacob Paul
    This chapter consolidates just over 100 books and journal articles at the intersection of the military and popular culture in the social science and humanities studies literature. All studies are English language publications and focus on popular culture and the military in the United States and the United Kingdom. The studies coalesce around 18 distinctive topics known as genres in the popular culture literature. The genres include literature/books, films, television, mass media, music, video games, board games, fashion, photography, and sports. Eight emerging genres include food, technology, graffiti, scandals, social media, toys, celebrities, and comics. Most studies are published in the journal Armed Forces & Society followed by the Journal of Popular Culture; Critical Military Studies; and Media, War & Conflict, among other journals, books, and edited volumes. Qualitative methods and films dominate the popular military culture studies. Popular military culture is a burgeoning subdiscipline.
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    Inducing motivational harmony to increase attitudes and intentions to register as an organ donor and engage in general prosocial behavior
    (Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 2020-10-16) Blazek, Danielle R. ; Siegel, Jason T. ; Tan, Cara N. ; Baumsteiger, Rachel ; Cornwell, James F. M.
    In three preregistered studies, we investigated whether positive and negative organ donation attitudes, intentions, as well as general prosocial behavioral intentions, could be influenced by inducing motivational harmony—the sense that things are going well in life. In Study 1, we examined correlations between motivational harmony, organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. Study 2a represented an attempt to assess the malleability of motivational harmony using two different autobiographical recall tasks. The successful induction was utilized in Study 2b, designed to assess whether increasing motivational harmony caused changes in organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. This study used a Solomon post‐group design, where participants were randomly assigned to receive the scale assessing the proposed mediator (i.e., motivational harmony) or to receive the dependent variables directly after receiving the induction. These studies focused on attitudes and intentions to register oneself as an organ donor after death. Although no direct effects on donor outcomes were identified, the motivational harmony induction task indirectly increased organ donation registration intentions through increased motivational harmony. Moreover, there was both a direct relationship of the motivational harmony induction on prosocial behavior intentions and an indirect association through increased motivational harmony. These findings have theoretical implications for the construct of motivational harmony, as well as practical applications for the promotion of organ donation and prosocial behavior.
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    The Relationship Among Chronotype, Hardiness, Affect, and Talent and Their Effects on Performance in a Military Context
    (Psychological Reports, 2022-03-02) Burrell, Lolita M. ; Kelly, Collette J. ; Kelly, Dennis R. ; Matthews, Michael D.
    Individual preference for morning or evening activities (chronotype), affect, hardiness, and talent are associated with a variety of performance outcomes. This longitudinal study was designed to investigate the degree to which these variables are associated with academic, physical, and military performance. Self-reported measures of chronotype, affect, and hardiness were collected from 1149 cadets from the Class of 2016 upon entry to the United States Military Academy. Talent, a composite of academic, leadership, and physical fitness scores were drawn from cadet records. Academic, military, and physical performance measures were collected at graduation 4 years later. The results indicated that a morning orientation was associated with better physical and military performance. Higher talent scores, as well as lower levels of negative affect, were associated with better performance across all three performance measures. Hardiness was only associated with military performance. The findings suggest that a morning orientation and less negative affect may result in better performance overall within a challenging and structured military environment. Future studies of chronotype shifts may provide further insight into associated performance benefits.
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    Forward toThe Routledge International Handbook of Military Psychology and Mental Health
    (Routledge, 2019-12-19) Matthews, Michael D. ; Kumar, Updesh
    Military psychology has become one of the world’s fastest-growing disciplines with ever-emerging new applications of research and development. The Routledge International Handbook of Military Psychology and Mental Health is a compendium of chapters by internationally renowned scholars in the field, bringing forth the state of the art in the theory, practice and future prospects of military psychology. This uniquely interdisciplinary volume deliberates upon the current issues and applications of military psychology not only within the military organization and the discipline of psychology, but also in the larger context of its role of building a better world. Split into three parts dedicated to specific themes, the first part of the book, "Military Psychology: The Roots and the Journey," provides an overview of the evolution of the discipline over the years, delving into concepts as varied as culture and cognition in the military, a perspective on the role of military psychology in future warfare and ethical issues. The second part, "Soldiering: Deployment and Beyond," considers the complexities involved in soldiering in view of the changing nature of warfare, generating a focal discourse on various aspects of military leadership, soldier resilience and post-traumatic growth in the face of extreme situations, bravery and character strengths and transitioning to civilian life. In the final section, "Making a Choice: Mental Health Issues and Prospects in the Military," the contributors focus on the challenges and practices involved in maintaining the mental health of the soldier, covering issues ranging from stress, mental health and well-being, through to suicide risk and its prevention, intervention and management strategies, moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. Incorporating enlightening contributions of eminent scholars from around the world, the volume is a comprehensive repository of current perspectives and future directions in the domain of military psychology. It will prove a valuable resource for mental health practitioners, military leaders, policy-makers and academics and students across a range of disciplines.