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ItemA Model of Technology Incidental Learning Effects(Educational Psychology Review, 2020-10-10) Greene, Jeffrey A. ; Copeland, Dana Z. ; Deekens, Victor M.Increases in technology use, among youth and adults, are concerning given the volume of information produced and disseminated in the modern world. Conceptual models have been developed to understand how people manage the large volume of information encountered during intentional learning activities with technology. What, if anything, do people learn when they happen upon news and other information while using technology for purposes other than learning? Questions like this highlight the need to understand incidental learning, i.e., learning that occurs when people, who are pursuing a goal other than learning such as entertainment, encounter information that leads to a change in thinking or behavior. In this article, we integrate theory and research from multiple scholarly literatures into the Technology Incidental Learning Effects (TILE) model, which provides a framework for future research on how incidental learning occurs and what factors affect this process. Current research on incidental learning can be informed by educational psychology scholarship on dual-processing, motivation, interest, source evaluation, and knowledge reconstruction. The TILE model points to many promising future directions for research with direct implications for modern society, including the need to better understand how and why people move from merely noticing to engaging with incidentally exposed information as well as how to help people successfully manage the large amounts of information they encounter when using technology for purposes other than learning. ItemAdapting a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes(Memory & Cognition, 2002-04) Foley, Mary Ann ; Foley, Hugh J. ; Korenman, Lisa M.The present experiments adapt a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes. Closure processes are invoked as explanatory mechanisms underlying the ability to identify objects under conditions of incomplete visual information. If closure processes are activated, filling in missing pieces of visual information, intriguing memory predictions follow. When making source judgments about the way in which visual information was experienced initially (e.g., complete or incomplete in form), a particular kind of memory error should be evident. Incomplete visual information should be remembered as complete in form, and indeed, this error is observed. The present experiments test alternative interpretations for the initial reports of this memory error in the context of a search task modeled after the Where's Waldo? children's books. The effects of several new factors (e.g., familiarity) are reported, and alternative interpretations for the bias to report complete are eliminated. Findings, therefore, have implications for understanding the mechanisms of closure processes, as well as for the source-monitoring framework itself. ItemAn Experiential Exercise for Teaching Theories of Work Motivation: Using a Game to Teach Equity and Expectancy Theories(Emerald Publishing, 2020) Swain, Jordan; Kumlien, Kevin; Bond, AndrewPurpose This paper aims to provide an experiential exercise for management and leadership educators to use in the course of their teaching duties. Design/methodology/approach The approach of this classroom teaching method uses an experiential exercise to teach Adams’ equity theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory. Findings This experiential exercise has proven useful in teaching two major theories of motivation and is often cited as one of the more memorable classes students experience. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is an original experiential exercise for teaching the equity and expectancy theories of motivation. ItemCharacter strengths and performance outcomes among military brat and non-brat cadets(Military Psychology, 2020-02-13) Gosnell, Courtney L. ; Kelly, Dennis R. ; Ender, Morten G. ; Matthews, Michael D.Although many studies have compared military vs. civilian samples on a wide variety of characteristics, few have examined these differences within the context of those who commit a portion of their life to the military. In this study, we explored how West Point cadets with (“military brat cadet”) or without (“non-brat cadet”) a family military background might differ in terms of their character strengths. Although the cadets shared many similarities, we found that several strengths related to self-control were higher in non-brat cadets than brat cadets and that many of these self-control-related strengths were important predictors of performance for brat cadets (but not non-brat cadets). For non-brat cadets, strengths related to a drive to fully involve themselves and navigate relationships with others were better predictors of performance. In a second study utilizing a different class of cadets, we again found support for the idea that nonmilitary brat cadets possessed more self-control than military brat cadets. Better understanding the unique strengths and weaknesses of those within the military who have vs. don’t have a military background may provide important insights for future recruitment, training, and military preparation. ItemCognitive deficits in children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma(Neurology, 2001-07-10) Frattali, C. M. ; Liow, K. ; Craig, G. H. ; Korenman, Lisa M. ; Makhlouf, F. ; Sato, S. ; Biesecker, L.G. ; Theodore, W. H.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cognitive deficits in children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma and investigate the relationship of seizure severity to cognitive abilities. METHODS: Eight children with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma completed a neuropsychological battery of standardized and age-normed tests, including the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised: Tests of Cognitive Ability, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III, and initial-letter word fluency measure. RESULTS: All children displayed cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe. Gelastic/complex partial seizure severity was correlated with broad cognitive ability standard scores (r = -0.79; r2 = 0.63; (F[1,6] = 10.28; p = 0.018]. Frequency of gelastic/complex partial seizures was also correlated with broad cognitive ability standard scores (r = -0.72; r2 = 0.52; F[1,6] = 6.44; p = 0.044). Significant intracognitive standard score differences were found, with relative weaknesses in long-term retrieval (mean = 64.1; SD = 13.3) and processing speed (mean = 67.7; SD = 21.6) and a relative strength in visual processing (mean = 97.6; SD = 12.8). Performance in visual processing differed from performance in long-term retrieval (p = 0.009) and processing speed (p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with cognitive functions and affective/emotional states associated with conduction pathways of the hypothalamus involving cortical association areas and amygdala and hippocampal formation. These abnormalities can account for the prominent deficit found in integrating information in the processing of memories. ItemCohesion in human–autonomy teams: an approach for future research(Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 2022-02-08) Lakhmani, Shan G. ; Neubauer, Catherine ; Krausman, Andrea ; Fitzhugh, Sean M. ; Berg, Samantha K. ; Wright, Julia L. ; Rovira, Ericka ; Blackman, Jordan J. ; Schaefer, Kristin E.Cohesion is an important property of teams that can affect individual teammates and team outcomes. However, cohesion in teams that include autonomous systems as teammates is an underexplored topic. We examine the extant literature on cohesion in human teams, then build on that foundation to advance the understanding of cohesion in human–autonomy teams, both similarities and differences. We describe team cohesion, the various definitions, factors, dimensions and associated benefits and detriments. We discuss how that element may be affected when the team includes an autonomous teammate with each description. Finally, we identify specific factors of human–autonomy interaction that may be relevant to cohesion, then articulate future research questions critical to advancing science for effective human–autonomy teams. Relevance Statement: The human team literature has provided a foundation onto which human–autonomy team research can build, but the team dynamics, and subsequent states, established in multi-human teams are expected to differ in human–autonomy teams. This manuscript focuses on cohesion, one such state and synthesises elements of human team cohesion and human–autonomy interaction to detail expectations for cohesion in human–autonomy teams. These expectations can serve as a launch point for future research. ItemColumbia in the Nation’s Service: Warner Burke and the Education of U.S. Army Leaders(The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 2020-09-10) Spain, Everett ; Reed, Brian J.In 1969, Columbia University banned Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) from campus. In 2004, Teachers College’s Warner Burke, a senior professor of psychology and Army officer veteran, saw an opportunity to close this civil–military gap. Burke partnered with West Point to educate West Point cadets’ primary leader developers, its 36 company tactical officers, through hosting them annually in a world-class Master of Social-Organizational Psychology. In 2010, Burke welcomed the Army Fellows program to campus, bringing in one or two senior Army officers a year to study under his mentorship. Since Burke courageously showed the way, Columbia has welcomed ROTC back to campus and now boasts the largest numbers of veteran students in the Ivy League. Most recently, Burke built a third program, this one to educate critical Army leaders who historically did not have access to elite higher education, its noncommissioned officer corps. ItemCommunication of Visual and Auditory Information and The Coordination of Team Task Performance(Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2019-11-20) Werner, Adam F. ; Gorman, Jamie C. ; Crites, Michael J.Due to lack of visual or auditory perceptual information, many tasks require interpersonal coordination and teaming. Dyadic verbal and/or auditory communication typically results in the two people becoming informationally coupled. This experiment examined coupling by using a two-person remote navigation task where one participant blindly drove a remote-controlled car while another participant provided auditory, visual, or a combination of both cues (bimodal). Under these conditions, we evaluated performance using easy, moderate, and hard task difficulties. We predicted that the visual condition would have higher performance measures overall, and the bimodal condition would have higher performance as difficulty increased. Results indicated that visual coupling performs better overall compared to auditory coupling and that bimodal coupling showed increased performance as task difficulty went from moderate to hard. When auditory coupling occurs, the frequency at which teams communicate affects performance— the faster teams spoke, the better they performed, even with visual communication available. ItemDeterminants of Gender Differences in Change in Pay among Job-Switching Executives(ILR Review, 2020-06-14) Groysberg, Boris ; Healy, Paul ; Lin, EricThe authors investigate what determines differences in change in pay between men and women executives who move to new employers. Using proprietary data of 2,034 executive placements from a global search firm, the authors observe narrower pay differences between men and women after job moves. The unconditional gap shrinks from 21.5% in the prior employer to 15% in the new employer. After controlling for typical explanatory factors, the residual gap falls by almost 30%, from 8.5% at the prior employer to 6.1% in the new placement. This change reflects a relative increase in performance-based compensation for women and a lower level of unexplained pay inequality generally in external placements. Controlling for individual fixed effects, observed women have higher pay raises than do men. Finally, the authors find suggestive evidence that pay differences may also be moderated by differences in the supply and demand for women executives. ItemDistribution of Knock Frequencies in Modern Engines Compared to Historical Data(SAE, 2018) Mittal, VikramIt is widely known that the rapid autoignition of end-gas will cause an engine cylinder to resonate, creating a knocking sound. These effects were quantified for a simple engine geometry in 1934 in a study where critical resonance frequencies were identified. That analysis, performed by Charles Draper, still forms the basis of most knock studies. However, the resonance frequencies are highly dependent on the engine geometry and the conditions inside the cylinder at autoignition. Since, engines and fuels operate at substantially different conditions than they did in 1934, it is expected that there should be a shift in knock frequencies. Experimental tests were run to collect knock data in an engine, representative of modern geometries, over a range of operating conditions for a number of different fuels. The operating conditions-intake air temperature, intake air pressure, and engine speed-were varied to identify shifts in the critical frequencies. Additionally, fuels were varied in octane number from 80 to 100. The resulting analysis found that the first circumferential mode, at approximately 6 kHz still played a substantial role in knock in modern engines. However, the analysis also found a decreased contribution from radial modes and an increased contribution from the axial modes. The distributions of frequencies did not shift significantly for changes in the intake air temperature or pressure; however, the axial modes became more significant at higher engine speeds. Additionally, the axial modes increase in frequency for higher octane fuels, which have an earlier knock-limited spark advance. These results show the increased importance of the axial modes in knock for modern engines; these modes are typically not audible, though they can still result in engine damage. ItemEarly predictors of successful military careers among West Point cadets(Military Psychology, 2020-11-16) Spain, Everett S. ; Lin, Eric ; Young, Lissa V.The importance of leadership to organizational performance puts a premium on identifying future leaders. Early prediction of high-potential talent enables organizations to marshal scarce developmental resources and opportunities to those who are best positioned to show distinction in elevated roles. Much of the existing literature indicates that general mental ability remains the strongest predictor of future professional performance. Using data from 13 classes of West Point graduates who stayed in the Army to be considered for at least early promotion to the rank of major (N = 5,505), regression analyses indicate that cadet military grade point average surpasses both cognitive ability and academic performance by a considerable margin in the ability to predict future professional outcomes such as selection for early promotion or battalion command. Moreover, these differences in predicting managerial career outcomes endure over 16 years. Both practical and theoretical implications are discussed. ItemEffectiveness of the Veteran X peer-led mental health recovery program: A quasi-experimental study.(Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2021) Shaw, David B. ; Magnes, N. Sarah ; Pratt, Thomas E. ; Wetzler, ElizabethObjective: The inclusion of peer-delivered services in organizations providing behavioral health care has significantly increased in recent years, and substantial resources are being directed toward implementing recovery-oriented mental health services using peer-provided programs. Previous research found that participants in such programs have improved recovery outcomes. While there are demonstrated positive associations between recovery outcomes and peer-provided services, there is limited research on the effectiveness of specific peer-provided interventions. Veteran X is a peer-led program developed in the Department of Veterans Affairs in which participants serve as a recovery team for a fictitious Veteran who faces numerous social and mental health issues. This study compared the effectiveness of the Veteran X program with treatment as usual on measures of recovery wellbeing, symptoms and functioning, and risk and protective factors for substance use disorders. Methods: Participants were recruited (N = 80) over a period of ten months, and had self-selected into treatment as usual (TAU, N = 37), or treatment as usual plus Veteran X (N = 43). Results: No baseline differences were found on the pretest measures. Both groups improved on all measures after 60 days of participation, however Veteran X participants improved significantly more than TAU participants on the measures of recovery wellbeing and symptoms and functioning. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The results of this study appear to support the positive contribution of the Veteran X program in improving recovery wellbeing and symptoms and functioning among participating veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) ItemEntrepreneurial Leadership: Shark tank for warriors(Routledge, 2021) Young, Lissa V.Welcome to your introduction to the field of entrepreneurship. A fundamental component of quality leadership and management is the ability to identify capability gaps, address market change or demand, and innovate organizational structure, policy, and procedure. Entrepreneurship is a mindset and a skill set that applies these abilities and processes. This course focuses specifically on developing in each student the abilities and process management skills of effective entrepreneurs. That is, each student will learn to adopt an innovator’s mind and skill set. The course is designed to teach leaders a disciplined methodology for creating value through innovation in organizations. ItemForward toThe Routledge International Handbook of Military Psychology and Mental Health(Routledge, 2019-12-19) Matthews, Michael D. ; Kumar, UpdeshMilitary psychology has become one of the world’s fastest-growing disciplines with ever-emerging new applications of research and development. The Routledge International Handbook of Military Psychology and Mental Health is a compendium of chapters by internationally renowned scholars in the field, bringing forth the state of the art in the theory, practice and future prospects of military psychology. This uniquely interdisciplinary volume deliberates upon the current issues and applications of military psychology not only within the military organization and the discipline of psychology, but also in the larger context of its role of building a better world. Split into three parts dedicated to specific themes, the first part of the book, "Military Psychology: The Roots and the Journey," provides an overview of the evolution of the discipline over the years, delving into concepts as varied as culture and cognition in the military, a perspective on the role of military psychology in future warfare and ethical issues. The second part, "Soldiering: Deployment and Beyond," considers the complexities involved in soldiering in view of the changing nature of warfare, generating a focal discourse on various aspects of military leadership, soldier resilience and post-traumatic growth in the face of extreme situations, bravery and character strengths and transitioning to civilian life. In the final section, "Making a Choice: Mental Health Issues and Prospects in the Military," the contributors focus on the challenges and practices involved in maintaining the mental health of the soldier, covering issues ranging from stress, mental health and well-being, through to suicide risk and its prevention, intervention and management strategies, moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. Incorporating enlightening contributions of eminent scholars from around the world, the volume is a comprehensive repository of current perspectives and future directions in the domain of military psychology. It will prove a valuable resource for mental health practitioners, military leaders, policy-makers and academics and students across a range of disciplines. ItemHead Strong: How Psychology is Revolutionizing War Revised and Expanded Edition(Oxford University Press, 2020-04-23) Matthews, Michael D.Since the publication of the first edition of Head Strong: How Psychology Is Revolutionizing War in 2014, developments in military psychology have been rapid and important—so much so that this revised edition is necessary to accurately capture the vital role that psychology continues to play in twenty-first-century military success. The ideas contained in the first edition influenced emerging doctrine in the Army’s Human Dimension and informed military leaders around the globe of ways that psychological science and practice may be leveraged to improve combat effectiveness. Many of the predictions made in the first edition have come true, and new and exciting products of military psychology now offer novel ways of impacting military outcomes. This revised edition of Head Strong updates the 13 chapters included in the first edition with breaking news in military psychology and adds new material to augment those chapters. Two entirely new chapters are included in this edition. The first focuses on human performance optimization. It captures rapid developments in psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and other disciplines that may help the military optimize soldier and unit performance. The second dives deeply into character and discusses how to measure it, how to develop it, and how character plays a vital role in the performance of individual soldiers and their units. Like the other topics in Head Strong, these two new chapters have significant applicability to nonmilitary organizations including schools, corporations, and sports teams. ItemInducing motivational harmony to increase attitudes and intentions to register as an organ donor and engage in general prosocial behavior(Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 2020-10-16) Blazek, Danielle R. ; Siegel, Jason T. ; Tan, Cara N. ; Baumsteiger, Rachel ; Cornwell, James F. M.In three preregistered studies, we investigated whether positive and negative organ donation attitudes, intentions, as well as general prosocial behavioral intentions, could be influenced by inducing motivational harmony—the sense that things are going well in life. In Study 1, we examined correlations between motivational harmony, organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. Study 2a represented an attempt to assess the malleability of motivational harmony using two different autobiographical recall tasks. The successful induction was utilized in Study 2b, designed to assess whether increasing motivational harmony caused changes in organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. This study used a Solomon post‐group design, where participants were randomly assigned to receive the scale assessing the proposed mediator (i.e., motivational harmony) or to receive the dependent variables directly after receiving the induction. These studies focused on attitudes and intentions to register oneself as an organ donor after death. Although no direct effects on donor outcomes were identified, the motivational harmony induction task indirectly increased organ donation registration intentions through increased motivational harmony. Moreover, there was both a direct relationship of the motivational harmony induction on prosocial behavior intentions and an indirect association through increased motivational harmony. These findings have theoretical implications for the construct of motivational harmony, as well as practical applications for the promotion of organ donation and prosocial behavior. ItemInducing motivational harmony to increase attitudes and intentions to register as an organ donor and engage in general prosocial behavior(Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 2020-10-16) Blazek, Danielle R. ; Siegel, Jason T. ; Tan, Cara N. ; Baumsteiger, Rachel ; Cornwell, James F. M.In three preregistered studies, we investigated whether positive and negative organ donation attitudes, intentions, as well as general prosocial behavioral intentions, could be influenced by inducing motivational harmony—the sense that things are going well in life. In Study 1, we examined correlations between motivational harmony, organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. Study 2a represented an attempt to assess the malleability of motivational harmony using two different autobiographical recall tasks. The successful induction was utilized in Study 2b, designed to assess whether increasing motivational harmony caused changes in organ donation attitudes, intentions, and prosocial behavioral intentions. This study used a Solomon post‐group design, where participants were randomly assigned to receive the scale assessing the proposed mediator (i.e., motivational harmony) or to receive the dependent variables directly after receiving the induction. These studies focused on attitudes and intentions to register oneself as an organ donor after death. Although no direct effects on donor outcomes were identified, the motivational harmony induction task indirectly increased organ donation registration intentions through increased motivational harmony. Moreover, there was both a direct relationship of the motivational harmony induction on prosocial behavior intentions and an indirect association through increased motivational harmony. These findings have theoretical implications for the construct of motivational harmony, as well as practical applications for the promotion of organ donation and prosocial behavior. ItemNeuropsychological Deficits of a U.S. Army Pilot following an Anoxic Event as a Function of Cardiac Arrest(Military Medicine, 2003-09-01) Baggett, Mark R. ; Kelly, Mark P. ; Korenman, Lisa M. ; Ryan, Laurie M.Anoxic encephalopathy occurs as a result of cardiac arrest, respiratory distress, or carbon monoxide poisoning. This is a case report on the neuropsychological deficits of anoxia in an otherwise previously healthy 36-year-old male pilot. The patient was taking an over-the-counter supplement that included an herb called Ma Huang on the day of his cardiac arrest. Ma Huang is reported to potentially present an increased risk of cardiac infarctions and central nervous system dysfunctions. Several instances of death have been linked to Ma Huang. The patient produced a neuropsychological profile that evidenced impairments in executive functioning, memory, language, attention, intellectual and academic functioning, as well as motor speed and coordination, all of which are consistent with diffuse brain damage. This case adds to the body of literature documenting the physical and neuropsychological effects of anoxia, as well as the effects of ephedrine-based supplements, such as Ma Huang. ItemPhysiological Versus Self-Report Measures of Arousal During Tactical Training Involving a Synthetic Topographic Environment(Simulation Innovation Workshop (SIW), 2020) Boyce, Michael; Stainrod, Cortnee; Pyke, ArynThis research compared the electrodermal activity (EDA) of 43 West Point Cadets while they completed a tactical task using 2 different displays (HoloLens vs. Tablet, within-subjects). It further compared EDA results to self-reported affect/arousal results from the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; Bradley & Lang, 1994). First we sought to understand how EDA varied between the two different types of presentation formats (Hololens vs. Tablet). Second it was expected that the EDA data would negatively correlate to self-report data based on previous research (Boyce, Reyes, et al., 2016), and third the EDA and self-report measures were expected be able to predict performance. Results did not indicate significant differences based on display type, however the results did support the negative correlation between EDA and SAM. Finally there was a trend toward predicting performance but it did not reach statistically significant levels, warranting the need for further investigation.