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    Concussion-Recovery Trajectories Among Tactical Athletes: Results From the CARE Consortium
    (Journal of Athletic Training/NATA, 2020-06-18) Van Pelt, Kathryn L.; Allred, C. Dain; Brodeur, Rachel; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Campbell, Darren E.; D'Lauro, Christopher J.; He, Xuming; Houston, Megan N.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kelly, Tim F.; McGinty, Gerald; Meehan, Sean K.; O'Donnell, Patrick G.; Peck, Karen Y.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Pasquina, Paul; McAllister, Thomas; McCrea, Michael; Broglio, Steven P.
    Context Assessments of the duration of concussion recovery have primarily been limited to sport-related concussions and male contact sports. Furthermore, whereas durations of symptoms and return-to-activity (RTA) protocols encompass total recovery, the trajectory of each duration has not been examined separately. Objective To identify individual (eg, demographics, medical history), initial concussion injury (eg, symptoms), and external (eg, site) factors associated with symptom duration and RTA-protocol duration after concussion. Design Cohort study. Setting Three US military service academies. Patients or Other Participants A total of 10 604 cadets at participating US military service academies enrolled in the study and completed a baseline evaluation and up to 5 postinjury evaluations. A total of 726 cadets (451 men, 275 women) sustained concussions during the study period. Main Outcome Measure(s) Number of days from injury (1) until the participant became asymptomatic and (2) to complete the RTA protocol. Results Varsity athlete cadets took less time than nonvarsity cadets to become asymptomatic (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.38, 2.23). Cadets who reported less symptom severity on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third edition (SCAT3), within 48 hours of concussion had 1.45 to 3.77 times shorter symptom-recovery durations than those with more symptom severity. Similar to symptom duration, varsity status was associated with a shorter RTA-protocol duration (HR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.34, 2.25), and less symptom severity on the SCAT3 was associated with a shorter RTA-protocol duration (HR range = 1.31 to 1.47). The academy that the cadet attended was associated with the RTA-protocol duration (P < .05). Conclusions The initial total number of symptoms reported and varsity athlete status were strongly associated with symptom and RTA-protocol durations. These findings suggested that external (varsity status and academy) and injury (symptom burden) factors influenced the time until RTA.
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    A Study Of Vertical Writing Surfaces At West Point
    (Routledge, 2021) Kimball, Raymond A.; Fuhriman, Christopher; Cooperman, Jack; Simpson, Eric
    This study was commissioned by the Vice Deans for Academics and Resources at West Point and led by Colonel Raymond Kimball, director of Faculty Learning, Innovation, Collaboration, and Research. The study assessed current Vertical Writing Surface (VWS) use throughout the institution. This study can inform classroom design decisions to facilitate student learning and provide faculty with the best resources to relay ideas to students. The study also compares VWS preference by academic discipline, STEM vs. non-STEM, and faculty vs. student. Finally, the study considers resource constraints with respect to cost, time, and maintenance efforts...
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    A cohort study to identify and evaluate concussion risk factors across multiple injury settings: findings from the CARE Consortium
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-01-14) Van Pelt, Kathryn L.; Allred, Dain; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Campbell, Darren E.; D’Lauro, Christopher J.; He, Xuming; Houston, Megan N.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kelly, Tim F.; McGinty, Gerald; Meehan, Sean; O’Donnell, Patrick G.; Peck, Karen Y.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Pasquina, Paul; McAllister, Thomas; McCrea, Michael; Broglio, Steven P.
    Background Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, is a major public health concern affecting 42 million individuals globally each year. However, little is known regarding concussion risk factors across all concussion settings as most concussion research has focused on only sport-related or military-related concussive injuries. Methods The current study is part of the Concussion, Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium, a multi-site investigation on the natural history of concussion. Cadets at three participating service academies completed annual baseline assessments, which included demographics, medical history, and concussion history, along with the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) symptom checklist and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18). Clinical and research staff recorded the date and injury setting at time of concussion. Generalized mixed models estimated concussion risk with service academy as a random effect. Since concussion was a rare event, the odds ratios were assumed to approximate relative risk. Results Beginning in 2014, 10,604 (n = 2421, 22.83% female) cadets enrolled over 3 years. A total of 738 (6.96%) cadets experienced a concussion, 301 (2.84%) concussed cadets were female. Female sex and previous concussion were the most consistent estimators of concussion risk across all concussion settings. Compared to males, females had 2.02 (95% CI: 1.70–2.40) times the risk of a concussion regardless of injury setting, and greater relative risk when the concussion occurred during sport (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.38 95% CI: 1.07–1.78). Previous concussion was associated with 1.98 (95% CI: 1.65–2.37) times increased risk for any incident concussion, and the magnitude was relatively stable across all concussion settings (OR: 1.73 to 2.01). Freshman status was also associated with increased overall concussion risk, but was driven by increased risk for academy training-related concussions (OR: 8.17 95% CI: 5.87–11.37). Medical history of headaches in the past 3 months, diagnosed ADD/ADHD, and BSI-18 Somatization symptoms increased overall concussion risk. Conclusions Various demographic and medical history factors are associated with increased concussion risk. While certain factors (e.g. sex and previous concussion) are consistently associated with increased concussion risk, regardless of concussion injury setting, other factors significantly influence concussion risk within specific injury settings. Further research is required to determine whether these risk factors may aid in concussion risk reduction or prevention.