Reference Percentiles for Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Athletes

The present study aimed to develop reference values for bioelectrical phase angle in male and female athletes from different sports. Overall, 2224 subjects participated in this study [1658 males (age 26.2 ± 8.9 y) and 566 females (age 26.9 ± 6.6 y)]. Participants were categorized by their sport discipline and sorted into three different sport modalities: endurance, velocity/power, and team sports. Phase angle was directly measured using a foot-to-hand bioimpedance technology at a 50 kHz frequency during the in-season period. Reference percentiles (5th, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 95th) were calculated and stratified by sex, sport discipline and modality using an empirical Bayesian analysis. This method allows for the sharing of information between different groups, creating reference percentiles, even for sports disciplines with few observations. Phase angle differed (men: p < 0.001; women: p = 0.003) among the three sport modalities, where endurance athletes showed a lower value than the other groups (men: vs. velocity/power: p = 0.010, 95% CI = −0.43 to −0.04; vs. team sports: p < 0.001, 95% CI = −0.48 to −0.02; women: vs. velocity/power: p = 0.002, 95% CI = −0.59 to −0.10; vs. team sports: p = 0.015, 95% CI = −0.52 to −0.04). Male athletes showed a higher phase angle than female athletes within each sport modality (endurance: p < 0.01, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.14; velocity/power: p < 0.01, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.07; team sports: p < 0.01, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.23). We derived phase angle reference percentiles for endurance, velocity/power, and team sports athletes. Additionally, we calculated sex-specific references for a total of 22 and 19 sport disciplines for male and female athletes, respectively. This study provides sex- and sport-specific percentiles for phase angle that can track body composition and performance-related parameters in athletes.
BIA, Body composition, Fat-free mass, Endurance, Sports performance, Team sports
Campa, Francesco, Diana Maria Thomas, Krista Watts, Nicholas Clark, Daniel Baller, Thomas Morin, Stefania Toselli, Josely Correa Koury, Giovanni Melchiorri, Angela Andreoli, and et al. 2022. "Reference Percentiles for Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Athletes" Biology 11, no. 2: 264.