Inverse Design of Three-Dimensional Frequency Selective Structures and Metamaterials using Multi-Objective Lazy Ant Colony Optimization

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Pennsylvania State University
With the rise of big data and the “internet of things,” wireless signals permeate today’s environment more than ever before. As the demand for information and security continues to expand, the need for filtering a crowded signal space will become increasingly important. Although existing devices can achieve this with additional components, such as in-line filters and low noise amplifiers, these approaches introduce additional bulk, cost and complexity. An alternative, low-cost solution to filtering these signals can be achieved through the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSSs), which are commonly used in antennas, polarizers, radomes, and intelligent architecture. FSSs typically consist of a doubly-periodic array of unit cells, which acts as a spatial electromagnetic filter that selectively rejects or transmits electromagnetic waves, based on the unit cell’s geometry and material properties. Unlike traditional analog filters, spatial filters must also account for the polarization and incidence angle of signals; thus, an ideal FSS maintains a given frequency response for all polarizations and incidence angles. Traditional FSS designs have ranged from planar structures with canonical shapes to miniaturized and multi-layer designs using fractals and other space-filling geometries. More recently, FSS research has expanded into three-dimensional (3D) designs, which have demonstrated enhanced fields of view over traditional planar and multi-layer designs. To date, nearly all FSSs still suffer from significant shifts in resonant frequencies or onset of grating lobes at incidence angles beyond 60 degrees in one or more polarizations. Additionally, while recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques have made fully 3D FSS designs increasingly popular, design tools to exploit these fabrication methods to develop FSSs with ultra-wide Fields of View (FOV) do not currently exist. In this dissertation, a Multi-Objective Lazy Ant Colony Optimization (MOLACO) scheme will be introduced and applied to the problem of 3D FSS design for extreme FOVs. The versatility of this algorithm will further be demonstrated through application to the design of meander line antennas, optical antennas, and phase-gradient metasurfaces.
Multi-Objective Lazy Ant Colony Optimization (MOLACO)
Zhu, Danny, "Inverse Design of Three-Dimensional Frequency Selective Structures and Metamaterials using Multi-Objective Lazy Ant Colony Optimization" (2018).