Numerical Methods for Simulating Multiphase Electrohydrodynamic Flows with Application to Liquid Fuel Injection
University of Colorado
Over the past decade, there has been a growing amount of attention paid to the emissions from small engines in the size range of 200 cm3 or smaller. In 2002 the EPA published a study claiming small engine emissions were responsible for 9% Hydrocarbons (HC), 4% Carbon monoxide (CO), 3% NOx, and 2% particulate matter from all mobile sources in the United States . As a result, there is considerable interest in controlling emissions for these small engines. One of the main reasons small engines produce high emissions is that they are carbureted. Carburetors mix fuel with air for combustion, but they are incapable of providing precise fuel timing. These deﬁciencies lead to partial combustion and decreased fuel eﬃciency while increasing emissions. Direct fuel injection may reduce the incidence of these pollutants. However, the cost of implementation is a barrier to large scale adoption. Fuel injectors used in the automotive industry are too costly to be implemented on small engines, with the average cost falling in the range of $35 dollar per unit (USD). In order to keep the production cost proﬁtable, costs will have to be substantially lower.
Theses or dissertations
Multiphase Electrohydrodynamic Flows
Van Poppel, Bret, "Numerical Methods for Simulating Multiphase Electrohydrodynamic Flows with Application to Liquid Fuel Injection" (2010)