Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers
The control of lateral mode operation using a photonic crystal in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is analyzed and confirmed experimentally. By controlling design parameters of the photonic crystal pattern, we have produced photonic crystal VCSELs that operate in higher order defect modes in addition to the fundamental defect mode. The transverse modal behavior is consistent with the predictions of a theoretical model in which the etching depth dependence of the air holes of the photonic crystals is considered. We also have determined the lower limit of optical confinement required from the photonic crystal pattern to influence the output beam of the laser.
Wave propagation, Lasers, Photonic crystals
Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, Kent D. Choquette; Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 16 February 2004; 84 (7): 1031–1033. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1646729