ItemWest Point Journal of Politics and Security, Volume 1 Issue 2 (Spring 2023)(West Point Press, 2023) Editing TeamThe West Point Journal of Politics and Security (WPJPS) is an undergraduate journal based in the Department of Social Sciences at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point). Published annually online and in print, it aims to be the premiere publication in the United States for undergraduate research on topics germane to U.S. and international political and security interests, broadly defined. To that end, the journal welcomes innovative undergraduate research primarily situated in political science and security studies, but extending into economics, history, and sociology. ItemFront Matter(West Point Press, 2023) Editing Team"We are delighted to introduce the first special edition of the West Point Journal of Politics and Security, showcasing articles produced in the context of West Point’s Conference on the Ethics of War and Peace, held in 2021. This year, as we mark the 20-year anniversary of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, amid hard-won lessons about the costs of interventionism, it is an opportune moment to revisit the ethics of resorting to war. We are pleased to present innovative undergraduate research from West Point and non-West Point undergraduates addressing important topics concerning the use of force, Just War Theory, and more..." ItemJus Ex Bello And Just War As A Non-Zero-Sum Game(West Point Press, 2023) Anderson, Caleb; Batkin, Charles; Van Der Walt, LizettePopularized by Darrel Moellendorf with his 2008 paper of the same name, jus ex bello is an emerging field of exploration in Just War Theory. Though jus ad bellum, jus in bello, and jus post bellum are widely considered to cover most lines of inquiry in Just War Theory given proper interpretation, their domains of the cause of war, the conduct of war, and making peace, respectively, have left questions open of when and how to continue or end a war. Such questions are even more concerning given recent protracted conflicts such as the Global War on Terror, and they are precisely the kinds of questions jus ex bello seeks to address. Besides Dr. Moellendorf, another notable figure in the field, David Rodin, explores the theory under the terminology of jus terminatio. We choose to use Moellendorf’s terminology in discussing the extent of both theories broadly but elect to use one or the other where specifically appropriate in the paper. As a new field of thought, jus ex bello’s tenets need work, and we intend to show how its current structure can lead to the paradoxical situation of two sides in a conflict being simultaneously justified. This may represent the need for revision, but we also give thought to the utility of the idea, such that further work corroborating it as, indeed, not paradoxical, could still be a fruitful advancement of Just War Theory. ItemThe War Against Women in Afghanistan: Is A Surge In Gender-Based Violence An Inevitable Consequence Of The U.S. Withdrawal From Afghanistan?(West Point Press, 2023) Malik, IzzaU.S. President Joe Biden announced on April 14, 2021, that the U.S. military would exit Afghanistan by September 11—ending a 20-year occupation. Following the announcement, Afghan women worried that as soon as U.S. and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) forces left the country, they would become subject to extreme forms of gender-based violence and abuse. After the U.S. invasion, things improved for women on several counts. Thousands of girls barred from education under Taliban rule went to school. Women were allowed to join the workforce and earn a living after years of being confined to their homes. However, as soon as the president made his decision to end America’s 20-year war in Afghanistan, Afghan women worried that all these gains would be lost and they would have to endure the same level of violence that they did in the 1990s when Afghanistan last fell into the Taliban’s hands. ItemThe Dissipation of Liability: Rescuing the Theory of Intervening Agency(West Point Press, 2023) Kelly, JimWithin the conventional Just War Theory, there exists a principle that non-combatants are immune from being targeted. However, scholars such as Jeff McMahan argue that those who are morally responsible for threatening lethal harm incur liability to be harmed themselves, defensively. In this context, a debate has emerged over whether non-combatants supporting an unjust war could justifiably be targeted by the victims of that war. This paper explores the moral justifications for discrimination, where only combatants can be rightfully attacked and killed, while non-combatants enjoy the privilege of non-liability, specifically examining the Intervening Agency theory that draws on the concept of causal proximity and liability to defensive killing. ItemDemocracy In Danger? Political Violence, Peaceful Transition, and Threats to Democracy(West Point Press, 2023) Ellinas, MarcusMany claim that political violence1 (PV) threatens democracy. These claims often rest on the grounds that PV toxifies political discourse, fosters polarization, and constrains a government’s capacity to honor citizens’ policy preferences. There is a distinction, however, between PV that diminishes a democracy’s ability to do desirable things and PV that jeopardizes democracy itself. This paper argues that PV that threatens the peaceful transition of power does endanger democracy itself, while most other forms of PV do not. Accordingly, democratic governments are morally obligated to prioritize threats to peaceful transitions of power over threats that do not endanger democracy. Establishing a hierarchy of moral priorities does not give governments license to ignore certain threats, but rather, helps clarify which security measure a government is morally obligated to take if two are in conflict or how to proportionally allocate resources when those resources are limited. This paper proceeds in three parts. The first section offers a definition of democracy. The second section argues, based on this definition, that many types of PV do not threaten democracy itself, and consequently come second to peaceful transition threats on the list of a democratic government’s moral priorities. The final section considers the implications for present-day American security policy. ItemTires & Tribulations: A Moral Evaluation Of Firestone’s Actions In Liberia’s Civil War(West Point Press, 2023) Fernandez, MercedezThis study provides a moral assessment of Firestone—a multinational rubber manufacturer—and its operations in Liberia during the Liberian civil war. It examines Firestone’s history, especially as it pertains to Liberia, and traces key developments in the Liberian conflict and Firestone operations. Examining journalistic reporting and criticism of the company’s actions, the author argues that Firestone’s actions during the Liberian civil war were, to a great degree, immoral.