ItemAfter Genocide: Rwanda and the African Future(Sloan Publishing, 2016) Frey, David Stephen; Kovatch, BonnieHow do we think about—and plan for—the unthinkable? Contemplating the apocalypse has traditionally been a task reserved for prophets, poets, and philosophers. Today they are joined by statesmen and bureaucrats. As the modern state comes to oversee emergency management and disaster relief, real-world policymakers increasingly find themselves forced to envision the worst that can happen. To what degree do they succeed in doing so? How can individuals in an ordered society properly anticipate disorder? What are today’s worst case scenarios and to what degree is United States foreign policy prepared to respond to them? The contributors to this volume address these and related questions, in essays that cast students as policymakers on the cusp of consequential decisions. ItemOrdinary Soldiers: A Study in Ethics, Law and Leadership(Department of History: Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2014) Beorn, Waitman; Frey, David S.; Prescott, Jody; Skidmore, Gretchen; Ciardelli, JenniferCommanders often confront complex situations in which the imperatives of leadership intertwine with considerations of personal and professional ethics and the law. Using the case study of one Wehrmacht battalion—1st Battalion, 691st Infantry Regiment—on the eastern front in World War II, this lesson examines the chain of events that led to the mass killings of Jewish civilians in the battalion’s area of operations (AO) in October 1941. These events, when considered within the context of the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), provide a platform for today’s military professionals to think critically about their obligations as members of the military. The aim of this study is to provide military personnel an opportunity to weave understandings of ethics and law into their own developing leadership styles and to understand how, in the context of a particular war and particular military culture, protected civilians were transformed into military targets.